Jay Apt

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Professor of Technology and Director of Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center


  • Harvard College - A.B. - 1971
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Ph.D. - 1976
Teaching and Research Interests:
  • Economics, engineering, and public policy aspects of the electricity industry. Economics of technical innovation. Management of technical enterprises. Risk management in policy and technical decision framing. Engineering systems design.
Published Papers: 
  • Optimal Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Pumped Hydropower Storage
    Energy Systems, In Press.
    (with: E. Fertig, A.M. Heggedal, G. Doorman)

  • The Cost of Curtailing Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation Capacity
    Energy Systems, in Press.
    (with: S. Rose)

  • Quantifying the Hurricane Catastrophic Risk to Offshore Wind Power
    Risk Analysis 33(12), 2013; 2126-2141.
    (with: S. Rose, P. Jaramillo, M. Small)

  • What Day-Ahead Reserves are Needed in Electric Grids with High Levels of Wind Power?
    Environmental Research Letters 8, 2013.
    (with: B. Mauch, P.M.S. Carvalho, P. Jaramillo)

  • Incorporating Seismic Concerns in Site Selection for Enhanced Geothermal Power Generation
    Journal of Risk Research 16(8), 2013; 1021-1036.
    (with: E. Hosgör, B. Fischhoff)

  • An Effective Method for Modeling Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty
    Energy Systems 4(4), 2013; 393-417.
    (with: B. Mauch, P.M.S. Carvalho, M. Small)

  • Regional Variations in the Health, Environmental, and Climate Benefits of Wind and Solar Generation
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(29), 2013; 11768-11773.
    (with: K. Siler-Evans, I.L. Azevedo, M Morgan)

  • Preface to the Special Issue on Energy Modeling
    Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 47(2), 2013; 75.
    (with: Nicola Secomandi)

  • The Truth about Geoengineering
    Foreign Affairs, March 27, 2013.
    (with: D. Victor, M. Morgan, J. Steinbruner, K. Ricke)

  • Can Hybrid Solar-Fossil Power Plants Mitigate CO2 at Lower Cost than PV or CSP?
    Environmental Science & Technology 47(6), 2013; 2487-2493.
    (with: J. Moore)

  • Generating Wind Time Series as a Hybrid of Measured and Simulated Data
    Wind Energy 15(5), July, 2012; 699-715.
    (with: Stephen Rose)

  • Quantifying the Hurricane Risk to Offshore Wind Turbines
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(9), February, 2012; 3247-3252.
    (with: Stephen Rose, P. Jaramillo, M. Small, I. Grossmann)

  • The Effect of Long-distance Interconnection on Wind Power Variability
    Environmental Research Letters 7(3), 2012; 034017.
    (with: E. Fertig, P. Jaramillo, W. Katzenstein)

  • Cost Analysis of Stratospheric Albedo Modification Delivery Systems
    Environmental Research Letters 7(3), 2012; 034019.
    (with: J. McClellan, D. Keith)

  • The Costs of Solar and Wind Power Variability for Reducing CO2 Emissions
    Environmental Science & Technology 46(17), 2012; 9761- 9767.
    (with: C. Lueken, G. Cohen)

  • Can a Wind Farm with CAES Survive in the Day-ahead Market?
    Energy Policy 48, 2012; 584-593.
    (with: B. Mauch, P.M.S. Carvalho)

  • Reply to Powell and Cocke: On the Probability of Catastrophic Damage to Offshore Wind Farms from Hurricanes in the US Gulf Coast
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(33), 2012; E2193-E2194.
    (with: Stephen Rose, P. Jaramillo, M. Small, I. Grossmann)

  • Distribution Grid Reconfiguration Reduces Power Losses and Helps Integrate Renewables
    Energy Policy 48, 2012; 260-273.
    (with: C. Lueken, P.M.S. Carvalho)

  • The Cost of Wind Power Variability
    Energy Policy 51, 2012; 233-243.
    (with: W. Katzenstein)

  • Comparative Analysis of Conventional Oil and Gas and Wind Project Decommissioning Regulations on Federal, State, and County Lands
    The Electricity Journal 25(1), 2012; 29-45.
    (with: D. Changala, M. Dworkin, P. Jaramillo)

  • What Properties of Grid Energy Storage are Most Valuable?
    Journal of Power Sources 206, 2012; 436-449.
    (with: E. Hittinger, J. Whitacre)

  • Lester Lave, Visionary Economist
    Environmental Science & Technology 45(13), 2011; 5457-5458.
    (with: Chris Hendrickson, M.G. Morgan)

  • Battery Vehicles Reduce CO2 Emissions
    Science 333(6024), 2011; 823.
    (with: S. Peterson, J. Whitacre)

  • Net Air Emissions from Electric Vehicles: The Effect of Carbon Price and Charging Strategies
    Environmental Science & Technology 45(5), 2011; 1792-1797.
    (with: S. Peterson, J. Whitacre)

  • Economics of Compressed Air Energy Storage to Integrate Wind Power: A Case Study in ERCOT
    Energy Policy 39(5), 2011; 2330-2342.
    (with: E. Fertig)

  • Compensating for Wind Variability Using Co-Located Natural Gas Generation and Energy Storage
    Energy Systems 1(4), 2010; 417-439.
    (with: E. Hittinger, J. Whitacre)

  • The Economics of Using PHEV Battery Packs for Grid Storage
    Journal of Power Sources 195(8), 2010; 2377-2384.
    (with: S. Peterson, J. Whitacre)

  • Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Degradation Resulting from Realistic Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Grid Utilization
    Journal of Power Sources 195(8), 2010; 2385-2392.
    (with: S. Peterson, J. Whitacre)

  • The Air Quality and Human Health Effects of Integrating Utility-Scale Batteries into the New York State Electricity Grid
    Journal of Power Sources 195(8), 2010; 2405-2413.
    (with: E. Gilmore, R. Walawalkar, P. Adams, Lester Lave)

  • Implications of Compensating Property-Owners for Geologic Sequestration of CO2
    Environmental Science & Technology 44(8), 2010; 2897-2903.
    (with: R. Gresham, S. McCoy, M. Morgan)

  • The Variability of Interconnected Wind Plants
    Energy Policy 38(8), 2010; 4400-4410.
    (with: W. Katzenstein, E. Fertig)

  • Response to "Comment on 'Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power'"
    Environmental Science & Technology 43(15), 2009; 6108-6109.
    (with: W. Katzenstein)

  • Large Blackouts in North America: Historical Trends and Policy Implications
    Energy Policy 37(12), 2009; 5249-5259.
    (with: P. Hines, Sarosh Talukdar)

  • Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power
    Environmental Science & Technology 43(2), 2009; 253-258.
    (with: G. Katzenstein)

  • The Geoengineering Option: A Last Resort Against Global Warming?
    Foreign Affairs 88(2), 2009; 64-76.
    (with: D. Victor, M Morgan, J. Steinbruner, K. Ricke)

  • Near Term Implications of a Ban on New Coal-Fired Power Plants in the U.S.
    Environmental Science & Technology 43(11), 2009; 3995-4001.
    (with: A. Newcomer)

  • Regulating the Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide
    Environmental Science & Technology 42(8), 2008; 2718-2722.
    (with: E. Wilson, M. Morgan, M. Bonner, C. Bunting, al et)

  • Short Run Effects of a Price on Carbon Dioxide Emissions from U.S. Electric Generators
    Environmental Science & Technology 42(9), 2008; 3139-3144.
    (with: A. Newcomer, Seth Blumsack, Lester Lave, M Morgan)

  • An Economic Welfare Analysis of Demand Response in the PJM Electricity Market
    Energy Policy 36(10), 2008; 3692-3702.
    (with: R. Walawalkar, Seth Blumsack, S. Fernands)

  • A National Renewable Portfolio Standard? Not Practical
    Issues in Science & Technology 25(1), 2008; 53-59.
    (with: Lester Lave, S. Pattanariyankool)

  • The Character of Power Output from Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Systems
    Progress in Photovoltaics 16(3), 2008; 241-247.
    (with: A. Curtright)

  • Implications of Generator Siting for CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure
    Energy Policy 36(5), 2008; 1776-1787.
    (with: A. Newcomer)

  • Short Run Effects of a Price on Carbon Dioxide Emissions from U.S. Electric Generators
    Environmental Science & Technology 42(9), 2008; 3139-3144.
    (with: A. Newcomer, Seth Blumsack, Lester Lave, M Morgan)

  • The Spectrum of Power from Wind Turbines
    Journal of Power Source 18, 2007; 52-61.

  • Should a Coal-Fired Power Plant be Retrofitted or Replaced?
    Environmental Science & Technology 41(23), 2007; 7980-7986.
    (with: D. Patiño-Echeverri, B. Morel, C. Chen)

  • Deregulation/Restructing Part 1: Re-regulation Will Not Fix the Problems
    The Electricity Journal 20(8), 2007; 9-22.
    (with: Lester Lave, Seth Blumsack)

  • Deregulation/Restructuring Part II: Where Do We Go From Here?
    The Electricity Journal 20(9), 2007; 10-23.
    (with: Lester Lave, Seth Blumsack)

  • Storing Syngas Lowers the Carbon Price for Profitable Coal Gasification
    Environmental Science & Technology 41(23), 2007; 7974-7979.
    (with: A. Newcomer)

  • Promoting Low-Carbon Electricity Production
    Issues in Science & Technology 24(3), 2007.
    (with: D. Keith, M. Morris)

  • Economics of Electric Energy Storage for Energy Arbitrage and Regulation in New York
    Energy Policy 35(4), 2007; 2558-2568.
    (with: R. Walawalkar, R. Mancini)

  • Planning for Natural Disasters in a Stochastic World
    Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 33, 2006; 117-130.
    (with: Lester Lave)

  • Power and People
    The Electricity Journal 19(9), 2006; 17-25.
    (with: B. Fischhoff)

  • Response to Andy Ott's letter on "Lessons from the Failure of U.S. Electricity Restructuring"
    The Electricity Journal 19(5), 2006; 4-6.
    (with: Seth Blumsack, Lester Lave)

  • Electricity: Protecting Essential Services, in Seeds of Disaster, Roots of Response: How Private Action Can Reduce Public Vulnerability
    Cambridge University Press: New York, 2006; 211-238.
    (with: M. Morgan, Lester Lave)

  • Cell Phones: Unsafe at Any Airspeed: Cell Phones and Other Electronics are More of a Risk Than You Think
    IEEE Spectrum 43(3), 2006; 44-49.
    (with: B. Strauss, M. Morgan, D. Stancil)

  • A More Reliable U.S. Electric System
    Issues in Science & Technology 22(4), 2006; 51-58.
    (with: Lester Lave, M. Morgan)

  • Lessons from the Failure of U.S. Electricity Restructuring
    The Electricity Journal 19(2), 2006; 15-32.
    (with: Lester Lave, Seth Blumsack)

  • Increasing the Security and Reliability of the US Electricity System
    Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 2005; 57-69.
    (with: Lester Lave, A. Farrell, M. Morgan)

  • A Cautionary Tale: U.S. Electricity Reform
    Economic and Political Weekly (Special Issue: Power Sector Reform-International Experience 40(50), 2005; 5279-5290.
    (with: Seth Blumsack, Lester Lave)
    For Further Information

  • Are Renewables Portfolio Standards Cost-Effective Emission Abatement Policy?
    Environmental Science & Technology 39(22), 2005; 8578-8583.
    (with: Katerina Dobesova, Lester Lave)
    For Further Information

  • The Spectrum of Power from Wind Turbines
    Journal of Power Sources 18(2), 2005; 52-61.

  • Ecology - Managing Soil Carbon
    Science 304(5669), 2004; 393.
    (with: Rattan Lal, M. Griffin, Lester Lave, M. Morgan)

  • Response to Comments on "Managing Soil Carbon"
    Science 305(5690), 2004.
    (with: Rattan Lal, M. Griffin, Lester Lave, M Morgan)

  • Electrical Blackouts: A Systemic Problem
    Issues in Science and Technology 20(4), 2004; 55-61.
    (with: Lester Lave, Sarosh Talukdar, M. Morgan, Marija Ilic)

  • Restoring Soils to Protect Climate, Food, and Water
    Science 304, 2004; 393-393.
    (with: W. Griffin, Rattan Lal, Lester Lave, M. Morgan)

  • Rethinking Electricity Deregulation
    The Electric Journal 17(8), 2004; 11-26.
    (with: Seth Blumsack, Lester Lave)

  • Toward a Natural History Museum for the 21st Century: Measuring Effectiveness - Challenges and Strategies
    Museum News 76(6), 1997; 43-46.

  • Earth Observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-47: Endeavor's Mission to Planet Earth
    Geocarto International 9(3), 1994; 69-80.
    (with: D. Amsbury, J. Wilkinson, K. Lulla, S. Ackleson, et al)

  • Bolometric Albedos of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune
    Icarus 62(3), 1985; 425-432.
    (with: J. Neff, T. Ellis, J. Bergstralh)

  • Methane on Triton - Physical State and Distribution
    Icarus 58(2), 1984; 306-311.
    (with: D. Cruikshank)

  • Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research
    Icarus 53(3), 1983; 465-478.
    (with: P. Nisenson, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios)

  • Methane on Triton and Pluto - New CCD Spectra
    Astrophysical Journal 270(1), 1983; 342-350.
    (with: N. Carleton, C. Mackay)

  • Thermal Periodicities in the Venus Atmosphere
    Icarus 49(3), 1982; 427-437.
    (with: J. Leung)

  • Near-Infrared Linear-Array Spectrometer for Space Applications
    Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers 331, 1982; 177-181.
    (with: G. Bailey, J. Breckinridge)

  • Comparison of Ground-Based and Spacecraft Observations of the Infrared-Emission from Venus - the Nature of Thermal Contrasts
    Icarus 52(2), 1982; 301-319.
    (with: D. Diner, L. Elson)

  • Cloud Height Differences on Saturn
    Icarus 52(3), 1982; 503-508.
    (with: R. Singer)

  • Radius and Limb Darkening of Titan from Speckle Imaging
    Astronomical Journal 86(11), 1981; 1690-1693.
    (with: P. Nisenson, R. Goody, P. Horowitz)

  • Comparison of Band Model and Integrated Line-by-Line Synthetic Spectra for Methane in the 2.3-Mu-M Region
    Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 26(5), 1981; 431-442.
    (with: J. Martonchik, L. Brown)

  • Structure and Circulation of the Venus Atmosphere
    Journal of Geophysical Research 85(A13), 1980; 8007-8025.
    (with: G. Shubert, C. Covey, A. Del Genio, L. Elson, et al)

  • Simple Cassegrain Scanning System for Infrared Astronomy
    Applied Optics 19(10), 1980; 1590-1592.
    (with: R. Goody, L. Mertz)

  • Infrared Studies of Globular-Clusters near the Galactic-Center
    Astrophysical Journal 237(2), 1980; 432-437.
    (with: M. Malkan, D. Kleinmann)

  • The Character of the Thermal Emission from Venus
    Journal of Geophysical Research 85, 1980; 7934-7940.
    (with: R. Brown, R. Goody)

  • Velocity Dependence of Fine-Structure Changing Collisions of Na with Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2 and CO2
    Journal of Physics B - Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics 12(1), 1979; 83-98.
    (with: D. Pritchard)

  • Infrared Image of Venus at the Time of Pioneer Venus Probe Encounter
    Science 203(4382), 1979; 785-787.
    (with: R. Goody)

  • Anomalous Features in Thermal Radiance Maps of Venus
    Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics 84(Na6), 1979; 2529-2538.
    (with: R. Goody)

  • Observations of Sodium Emission from Jupiter
    Region-C. Planetary and Space Science 25(6), 1977; 603-604.
    (with: R. Goody)

  • Velocity Dependence of Na+Ar and Na+Xe Fine-Structure Changing Collisions
    Physical Review Letters 37(2), 1976; 91-94.
    (with: D. Pritchard)

  • Fine-Structure of Na 4d 2D Using High-Resolution Two-Photon Spectroscopy
    Physical Review Letters 32(12), 1974; 641-642.
    (with: D. Pritchard, T. Ducas)

Working Papers: 
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science - 2013
  • Fellow, The Explorers Club - 2008
  • NASA Distinguished Service Medal - 1997
  • Metcalf Lifetime Achievement Award for significant contributions to engineering - 2002
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